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Research Article |

Environmental Crime Dispute Resolution: A Comparative Study Between Lebanese and French Legislation

This study dealt with the issue of available means to combat environmental crime in Lebanon and France, relying on analytical and comparative approaches, and was divided into two parts. In the first section, it presented the extent of specialization of the judiciary in considering environmental crimes, which is characterized by its technical complexities and weak human and logistical resources. In the second section, alternative methods were presented for resolving these conflicts. It was discovered that there is no specialized judiciary for environmental issues, which could lead the judiciary to fully accept the expert's report. It turned out that the Lebanese legislator issued a law appointing a full-time environmental public defender and an investigative judge to look into environmental cases on a part-time basis. And that the Minister of Environment has the power to conclude a reconciliation contract with the polluter after a final court ruling is issued, in clear violation of the principle of separation of powers. Therefore, this study recommended the necessity of establishing a public prosecution specialized in environmental crimes, adopting alternative methods to solve environmental issues, promoting the application of the polluter pays principle, training judges to solve these crimes, and strengthening the role of environmental associations.

Environmental Crime, Judiciary Specializes, Alternative Means, Public Prosecution, Reconciliation Contract, Separation of Authorities, The Polluter

APA Style

Hamza, H. M. (2024). Environmental Crime Dispute Resolution: A Comparative Study Between Lebanese and French Legislation. Innovation, 5(1), 41-53.

ACS Style

Hamza, H. M. Environmental Crime Dispute Resolution: A Comparative Study Between Lebanese and French Legislation. Innovation. 2024, 5(1), 41-53. doi: 10.11648/j.innov.20240501.14

AMA Style

Hamza HM. Environmental Crime Dispute Resolution: A Comparative Study Between Lebanese and French Legislation. Innovation. 2024;5(1):41-53. doi: 10.11648/j.innov.20240501.14

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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